Medicare 101 – Understanding the Basics

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Russell Noga
by Russell Noga | Updated December 15th, 2023

Medicare 101 IntroIf you’re new to Medicare it can first seem like a very complex subject. With various parts and supplemental options available, it’s crucial to grasp the basics of Medicare 101 to make informed decisions about your healthcare coverage.

This comprehensive guide will walk you through Medicare’s structure, eligibility, enrollment, and more, empowering you with the knowledge to maximize your benefits and minimize your out-of-pocket expenses.


Key Takeaways


Demystifying Medicare: A Closer Look at the Federal Health Insurance Program

Medicare is a federal health insurance program designed to provide healthcare coverage for individuals aged 65 or older, those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or certain younger individuals with disabilities.

Medicare 101 Demystifying Medicare: A Closer Look at the Federal Health Insurance Program

Offering a multitude of options, the Medicare program categorizes its offerings into several parts: Part A is for hospital insurance, Part B caters to medical insurance, and Part D is for prescription medications.

Original Medicare and Medicare Advantage are the two primary methods of obtaining Medicare coverage, with Medicare Advantage often including supplemental coverage. For the most up-to-date information on Medicare enrollment and benefits, beneficiaries can visit


Original Medicare: Part A and Part B

Original Medicare consists of Part A and Part B, covering hospital and medical insurance respectively, and caters to basic healthcare needs. Part A covers certain hospital-related expenses, such as:

  • traditional hospital stays
  • home health care
  • skilled nursing facility care
  • inpatient hospital care
  • hospice care
  • inpatient care in a skilled nursing facility

Home health care services are also included.

Part B of Medicare covers a variety of medical expenses. These include, but are not limited to, routine physician visits, outpatient services and diagnostic screenings.

Most individuals are required to pay a monthly premium for Part B, along with deductibles, copays, and coinsurance when medical care is needed. Supplemental coverage, like Medigap or Medicare Advantage plans, can help with these out-of-pocket costs.


Medicare 101 Medicare Advantage: Part CMedicare Advantage: Part C

Medicare Advantage (Part C) is another option for beneficiaries looking to combine the coverage of Original Medicare Parts A and B into one plan.

Medicare Advantage plans provide additional benefits, frequently including Part D prescription drug coverage and supplemental coverage like vision, hearing, dental, and wellness services.

Part C combines the coverage of Parts A and B, encompassing both hospital and medical insurance. Medicare Advantage plans are provided by private insurance companies approved by Medicare, which distinguishes them from Original Medicare.


Prescription Drug Coverage: Part D

Medicare Part D, offering prescription drug coverage, can either be opted as a standalone plan or as a part of Medicare Advantage plans. Private insurance companies offer Medicare drug coverage.

The costs associated with Medicare Part D include:

It’s important to check with individual plans for exact costs.

Medicare Part D is designed to provide coverage for most outpatient prescription medications, including buprenorphine to treat opioid use disorders.


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Navigating Medicare Supplemental Insurance

Apart from Original Medicare, supplemental insurance options are available to aid with expenses not covered by Parts A and B, like deductibles, copays, and coinsurance.

This additional coverage can be found in the form of Medicare Supplement (Medigap) plans and Medicare Cost plans.


Medicare Supplement (Medigap) PlansMedicare 101 Medicare Supplement (Medigap) Plans

Medigap plans are supplemental insurance policies designed to help cover out-of-pocket costs that Original Medicare doesn’t cover, such as deductibles, copays, and coinsurance. There are 10 standardized Medigap plans available, designated by the letters A through N, which offer the same basic health coverage benefits irrespective of the insurance company or location.

Medigap plans provide assistance in covering the portion of costs for services that are covered under Original Medicare (Part A and Part B). To be eligible for a Medigap plan, individuals must be aged 65 or above and possess both Medicare Part A and Part B.


Medicare Cost Plans

Apart from the benefits of Original Medicare, Medicare Cost plans offer:

  • Cost-sharing options for out-of-network care
  • Coverage that is analogous to Medicare Advantage plans while enabling beneficiaries to retain their Original Medicare coverage
  • Additional benefits, including fitness programs, vision, hearing, and dental services

In Medicare Cost plans, the cost-sharing for out-of-network care is higher compared to in-network providers, with the plan member shouldering their share of the cost.


Medicare 101 Determining Your Medicare EligibilityDetermining Your Medicare Eligibility

To qualify for Medicare, individuals must meet certain criteria. They must be either a United States citizen or legally present in the United States.

The following individuals are eligible for Medicare:

  • US citizens who are aged 65 or above
  • US citizens who are permanently disabled
  • US citizens who are receiving railroad retirement benefits
  • US citizens who are living with end-stage renal disease (ESRD)

It is important to note that lawful residents who meet these criteria are also eligible for Medicare.

Those who are lawfully present in the United States may also be eligible for Medicare, with the criteria for “lawfully present” status typically including immigrants who are “qualified non-citizens” and possess the necessary documentation to demonstrate their lawful presence.

Timing Your Medicare Enrollment

Timely enrollment in Medicare during specified periods is necessary to circumvent penalties for late enrollment. The initial Medicare enrollment period is a seven-month span that commences three months prior to the month of your 65th birthday, encompasses the month of your 65th birthday, and terminates three months after your birthday month.

In addition to the initial enrollment period, there’s also a general enrollment period, which occurs from January 1st to March 31st each year. Special Enrollment Periods allow individuals to enroll in or make changes to their Medicare coverage beyond the regular enrollment periods under specific circumstances.


Medicare 101


Steps to Enroll in Medicare

One can get enrolled in Original Medicare either automatically or by opting for self-enrollment. Automatic enrollment takes place when individuals are already receiving Social Security benefits or Railroad Retirement Board benefits upon becoming eligible for Medicare.

Self-enrollment, on the other hand, requires individuals to actively enroll themselves in Medicare Part A and Part B by contacting the Social Security Administration or Railroad Retirement Board.

To enroll in Medicare, one must provide the following documentation:

  • Birth certificate (for age verification)
  • Proof of job-based health insurance (if applicable)
  • Documentation for enrollment in Medicare if no Social Security benefits are received.

Medicare 101 Comparing Medicare Advantage PlansComparing Medicare Advantage Plans

Various types of Medicare Advantage plans are available, such as:

  • Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) plans
  • Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) plans
  • Medicare Savings Account (MSA) plans
  • Private Fee-for-Service (PFFS) plans

Each type of plan has its own distinct regulations and expenses.

Choosing the most suitable plan requires:

  • A careful examination of available options
  • Cost comparison
  • A detailed review of each Medicare Advantage plan’s network to confirm the inclusion of preferred healthcare providers.


Maximizing Your Medicare Benefits

Optimizing your Medicare benefits involves:

  • Analyzing your coverage
  • Ascertaining your priorities
  • Timely enrollment
  • Annual reassessment of your healthcare needs

Selecting the appropriate Medicare plan and taking advantage of free preventive services can help you optimize your benefits and minimize your out-of-pocket expenses.

Staying healthy and proactive about your healthcare can save you money on healthcare costs in the long run.

Financial Assistance for Medicare Beneficiaries

Numerous financial aid programs exist for Medicare beneficiaries, such as the Qualified Medicare Beneficiary (QMB) Program, the Specified Low-Income Medicare Beneficiary (SLMB) Program, and Medicare Savings Programs.

These programs aid in covering the costs of Medicare premiums, deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments for eligible individuals.

To qualify for financial assistance programs, individuals must meet specific income and resource limits, as well as be enrolled in or eligible for a Part D prescription drug plan.

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In summary, understanding Medicare and its various parts, supplemental options, and enrollment periods is crucial for optimizing your healthcare coverage and minimizing out-of-pocket expenses.Medicare 101 Summary

By determining your eligibility, enrolling on time, comparing plans, and taking advantage of financial assistance programs, you can make informed decisions about your healthcare and maximize your Medicare benefits.

As you navigate the world of Medicare, remember that knowledge is power.

By educating yourself on the different aspects of this federal health insurance program, you can make the best choices for your healthcare needs and enjoy a healthier, more secure future.

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Frequently Asked Questions


  What is the easiest way to explain Medicare?

Medicare is a federal health insurance program available to individuals aged 65 or over and those under 65 with certain disabilities or conditions. It is administered by the Social Security Administration and is funded through payroll taxes.


  What are the 6 things Medicare doesn’t cover?

Medicare does not cover certain items and services such as long-term care, vision and dental care, hearing aids, eyeglasses, private-duty nursing, and most prescription drugs.


  Who is eligible for Medicare Basic?

Those who are 65 years of age or older, have worked for at least 10 years in Medicare-covered employment, are a citizen or permanent resident of the US, and some younger people with disabilities or End-Stage Renal Disease may all be eligible for Medicare Basic.


  What is the difference between Original Medicare and Medicare Advantage?

Original Medicare is made up of Part A and Part B, while Medicare Advantage (Part C) covers Parts A and B plus additional services like Part D prescription drug coverage and supplemental coverage such as vision, hearing, dental, and wellness services.


  What are Medigap plans?

Medigap plans are supplemental insurance policies that help cover the gaps in Original Medicare coverage, including deductibles, copays and coinsurance.

Find the Right Medicare Plan for You

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Call us today at 1-888-891-0229 and one of our knowledgeable, licensed insurance agents will be happy to help you!

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